Fausto Andrés Vásconez Muñoz, Marta Elena Hernández García, Carolina Sainz Azara, Almudena Mejías Espada, Alejandro Iñarra Navarro, Ana Karina Portillo Villasmil, Blanca Muñoz Pedraz, Olatz Salsidua ArroyoPatient
14 years, male
We reported a 14-year-old male patient admitted to our Hospital due to a mild fever, headache, disconnection with the environment and dystonic crisis. After initiating symptomatic and anticonvulsant treatment, a MRI was performed where hyperintense bilateral cortico-subcortical cerebellar lesions were observed in T2 and FLAIR sequences with a RT-PCR SARS-Cov-2 negative.
During the second day of hospitalization, after presenting neurological symptoms, the MRI showed the following findings. In both cerebellar hemispheres, MRI found cortico-subcortical hyperintense lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, and hypointense in T1, with subtle gadolinium uptake in 3 areas. These lesions produce increase in the size of the cerebellar hemispheres with minimal mass effect on the upper third of the IV ventricle. The rest of the ventricular system and cisterns shown a normal caliber and morphology. Neither were lesions that restrict DWI-ADC sequences, nor signal alteration in the rest of the sequences in the cerebral parenchyma or leptomeningeal enhancement. 8 days after, a MRI control was performed, finding radiological improvement of the lesions by showing: absence of gadolinium enhance and decreased mass effect on the IV ventricle, but the bilateral cerebellar cortico-subcortical lesions persisted. 2 weeks after the MRI was normal
The COVID19 produced by SARS-CoV-2, develops an acute respiratory condition with mild symptoms in the majority of cases (1). In addition, Central Nervous System (CNS) has been affected, producing mild symptoms such as headache, anosmia, and dysgeusia, to more serious conditions such as cerebrovascular disease, necrotizing encephalopathy, encephalitis and Acute Cerebellitis (AC) (1,2).
Given the negativity of microbiological studies, it´s important to suspect a parainfectious aetiology of AC, putting the post-vaccination cause at the fore (3,10). Autoimmunity is a possible explanation, since antibodies against Purkinje cells, centrosome, ganglioside, among others, had been found in these patients (4,11) . Vaccines against varicella and influenza have been reported with AC, if exists a recent vaccine history (3,7,10), but none of the vaccines designed against SARS-CoV-2 has been described as a cause of AC, but recently another case has also been reported as a possible asociation (17).
Gait instability and ataxia are symptoms closely related to cerebellar pathology, and the sum of these with others such as headache, vomiting, meningeal signs, seizures and even decreased consciousness allow us to suspect AC. The evolution of AC is favourable in the majority of cases since it is self-limited (4,7,16).
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for AC diagnosis (3–5). Radiological findings related to AC can range from unilateral or bilateral cerebellar cortex hyperintensity in T2 and FLAIR sequences and hypointense in T1, possible enlargement of the cerebellum due to oedema, enhancement of parenchymal and meningeal lesions after gadolinium administration; as well as signs related to infratentorial intracranial hypertension such as compression of brainstem, IV ventricle or Silvio´s aqueduct with retrograde triventricular dilation and/or tonsillar herniation (5–7). Diffusion sequences (DWI - ADC) could be useful for showing signal restriction in acute lesions (6,8 ).
Our patient meets the criteria with the clinical-radiological picture of an AC, whose only relevant antecedent was the recent COVID19 vaccination with a negative microbiological study, so it´s important to suspect this vaccine as a possible aetiology of AC. To support our etiological suspicion, we have found reports of cases that have developed optic neuromyelitis, transverse myelitis, multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barré syndrome after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (12,13), which would support the parainfectious aetiology AC in our case (3).
The objective of this work is descriptive, showing the possible association of AC in our patient with the COVID 19 vaccine and propose studies with an adequate design to investigate a possible correlation between AC and COVID19 vaccine.
 Serrano-Serrano B, López-Hernández N, Dahl-Cruz F, Elvira-Soler E, Díaz-Marín C. Encefalitis multifocal como manifestación neurológica de la infección por COVID-19. Vol. 71, Revista de Neurologia. Revista de Neurologia; 2020. p. 351–2.
 Francisco J. C-A. Complicaciones neurológicas por coronavirus y COVID-19. Revista de Neurología. 2020;70(9):311–22.
 Mendes Dos Santos C, Sá G, Filipa GERALDO A, Tavares JB, Neto L, Campos JG. Cerebelite Aguda na Criança-A Propósito de Diferentes Etiologias. Revista Científica da Ordem dos Médicos [Internet]. 2012;25(1):38–41. Available from: www.actamedicaportuguesa.com
 García-Iñiguez JP, López-Pisón FJ, Madurga Revilla P, Montejo Gañán I, Domínguez Cajal M, Monge Galindo L, et al. Acute cerebellitis in paediatric patients: Our experience. Neurologia. 2019 Jun 1;34(5):291–9.
 Grahn A, Studahl M. Varicella-zoster virus infections of the central nervous system - Prognosis, diagnostics and treatment. Journal of Infection. 2015;71(3):281–93.
 Bakshi R, Bates VE, Kinkel PR, Mechtler LL, Kinkel WR. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS IN ACUTE CEREBELLITIS. CLINICAL IMAGING. 1998 Mar;22(2):79–85.
 Bozzola E, Bozzola M, Tozzi AE, Calcaterra V, Longo D, Krzystofiak A, et al. Acute cerebellitis in varicella: A ten year case series and systematic review of the literature. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2014 Jun 19;40(1).
 Lambrecq V, Hanin A, Munoz-Musat E, Chougar L, Gassama S, Delorme C, et al. Association of Clinical, Biological, and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings with Electroencephalographic Findings for Patients with COVID-19. JAMA Network Open. 2021 Mar 15;4(3).
 Sánchez E, Álvarez C, Bermeo A, Jiménez P, Sánchez E, Álvarez C, et al. Encefalitis virales. In.
 Min Park Si Eun Kim Sung Eun Kim K, Eun Kim S. An Elderly Case of Acute Cerebellitis after Alleged Vaccination CASE REPORT Corresponding author. Journal of Movement Disorders [Internet]. 2012;5:21–3. Available from: www.e-jmd.org
 Shiihara T, Kato M, Konno A, Takahashi Y, Hayasaka K. Acute cerebellar ataxia and consecutive cerebellitis produced by glutamate receptor δ2 autoantibody. Brain and Development. 2007 May;29(4):254–6.
 Khayat-Khoei M, Bhattacharyya S, Katz J, Harrison D, Tauhid S, Bruso P, et al. COVID-19 mRNA vaccination leading to CNS inflammation: a case series. Journal of neurology [Internet]. 2021 Sep 4; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34480607
 Chen S, Fan XR, He S, Zhang JW, Li SJ. Watch out for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder after inactivated virus vaccination for COVID-19. Neurological Sciences. 2021 Sep 1;42(9):3537–9.
 Tyler KL. Acute Viral Encephalitis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2018 Aug 9;379(6):557–66.
 Koeller KK, Shih RY. Viral and prion infections of the central nervous system: Radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2017 Jan 1;37(1):199–233.
 Cho TA, Schmahmann JD, Cunnane ME. A 19-Year-Old Man with Otalgia, Slurred Speech, and Ataxia. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013 Sep 26;369(13):1253–61.
 Brecl Jakob G, Savšek L, Meglič B. Acute cerebellitis requiring posterior fossa decompression after COVID-19 vaccination in an ocrelizumab-treated patient with multiple sclerosis. Neurological Sciences [Internet]. 2022 Feb 28; Available from: https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10072-022-05966-4.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.