CASE 14549 Published on 14.03.2017

IVC leiomyosarcoma



Case Type

Clinical Cases


Dr. Yama Patel1, Dr. Suvinay Saxena2, Dr. Shikha Khandelwal3

(1) Radiology resident
(2) Radiology resident
(3) Consultant radiologist

Gujarat Imaging Centre Post Graduate Institute of Radiology (GIC-PGIR);
Samved Hospital, Navrangpura
380009 Ahmedabad, India;

65 years, female

Area of Interest Cardiovascular system ; Imaging Technique CT
Clinical History
The patient presented with complaints of breathlessness for the past 4 days.
Imaging Findings
An inhomogeneously enhancing soft tissue density lesion is seen involving the middle and lower segments of IVC with minimal extraluminal spread. The lesion is seen minimally protruding into both renal veins. No evident invasion of adjacent structures is seen. Bland thrombus is seen at the cranial end of the lesion in the intrahepatic portion of IVC. CT thorax reveals multiple well-defined soft tissue density nodular lesions of variable sizes in both lung fields suggestive of metastatic deposits.
Primary vascular leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumour arising from smooth muscle of media. [1] IVC is involved most commonly. It has significant preponderance for women. [2] The slow-growing tumour process leads to presentation in late stage with systemic metastases.

Presenting symptoms and resectability depend on the location, extension of the tumour and associated thrombosis. So, IVC is divided into three segments: lower (below renal veins), middle (between renal veins and hepatic vein) and upper (from hepatic veins to right atrium). Most of the leiomyosarcomas of IVC involve the middle segment.

Haematogenous spread of the tumour occurs to liver, lung and brain. Lymphatic spread occurs late in the disease process. [2, 3, 4]

USG appearance: A right-sided lobulated hypoechoic retroperitoneal mass, sometimes surrounded by a hyperechoic rim.

CT: Better delineation of the position of the intravascular tumour and its extraluminal spread. The lesion appears large-lobulated and occasionally heterogeneous to haemorrhage and necrosis. The tumour is usually hypovascular, but sometimes may show peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. [5, 6] It is difficult to differentiate retroperitoneal tumours compressing or invading the IVC from extravascular leiomyosarcomas. [7]
Differential Diagnosis List
Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma
Tumour thrombus
Bland thrombus
Final Diagnosis
Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma
Case information
DOI: 10.1594/EURORAD/CASE.14549
ISSN: 1563-4086